7/04/2014

Centrifugal water chillers trane 2

Centrifugal water chillers trane 
2


chillers trane

Expansion Device:

Expansion Device

An expansion device is used to maintain the pressure difference between the high-pressure (condenser) and low-pressure (evaporator) sides of the refrigeration system, as established by the compressor. This pressure difference allows the evaporator temperature to be low enough for the refrigerant to absorb heat from the water being cooled, and the condenser temperature to be high enough for the refrigerant to reject heat to water at normally available temperatures. High-pressure liquid refrigerant flows through the expansion device, causing a pressure drop that reduces the refrigerant pressure to that of the evaporator. This pressure reduction causes a small portion of the liquid to boil off, or “flash,” cooling the remaining refrigerant to the evaporator temperature.
The expansion device is also used as a liquid refrigerant metering system, balancing the refrigerant flow rate with the evaporator load condition. In our example centrifugal chiller, the expansion device used is a set of 2 orifice plates. At full load, a large amount of refrigerant is moving through the chiller. The column of liquid refrigerant in the liquid line pressurizes the liquid at its
base. During passage through the orifice plates, the liquid refrigerant undergoes a pressure drop equal to the head (H1) before some of it flashes to vapor.

Expansion Device

As the load decreases, less refrigerant moves through the chiller and the level of the liquid column drops. Now, as the liquid refrigerant passes through the orifice plates, it only undergoes a pressure drop equal to the lower head (H2) before some of it flashes to vapor. This causes additional flashing at the orifice plate which, in turn, feeds less liquid to the evaporator.
Other types of expansion devices found in centrifugal chillers include: float valves, expansion valves (thermostatic or electronic), and variable orifices.

Economizer
cond Economizer
An economizer can be used in conjunction with multiple expansion devices to improve the efficiency of a multistage chiller. In a chiller with a 2-stage compressor, the expansion process can be separated into 2 steps with an economizer chamber between.
Liquid refrigerant from the condenser enters the first expansion device, which reduces the pressure of the refrigerant to that of the second-stage impeller inlet. This pressure drop causes a portion of the liquid refrigerant to evaporate, or flash, and the resulting mixture of liquid and vapor enters the economizer chamber. Here, the vapor is separated from the mixture and is routed directly to the inlet of the second stage impeller. The remaining liquid travels on to the second expansion device and evaporator.
Just before entering the evaporator, the liquid refrigerant flows through a second expansion device that reduces its pressure and temperature to evaporator conditions.
Flashing a portion of the refrigerant prior to the economizer reduces the amount of compressor power required, since the refrigerant vapor generated in the economizer only needs to be compressed by the second-stage impeller.
The benefit of the economizer will be discussed in greater detail in Period 2.
cond Economizer
In a chiller with a 3-stage compressor, the expansion process can be separated into 3 steps with separate economizer chambers between the steps.
Liquid refrigerant from the condenser enters the first orifice (expansion device), which reduces the pressure of the refrigerant to that of the third-stage impeller inlet. This pressure drop causes a portion of the liquid refrigerant to flash, and the resulting mixture of liquid and vapor enters the high-pressure chamber of the economizer. Here, the vapor is separated from the mixture and is then routed directly to the inlet of the third-stage impeller. The remaining liquid travels on to the second expansion device.
The second expansion device further reduces the pressure of the refrigerant to that of the second-stage impeller inlet. This pressure drop causes a portion of the liquid refrigerant to flash, and the resulting mixture of liquid and vapor enters the low-pressure chamber of the economizer. Here, the vapor is separated from the mixture and routed directly to the inlet of the second-stage impeller. The remaining liquid travels on to the third expansion device and evaporator.
Evaporator
 Again, the final expansion device reduces the pressure and temperature of the refrigerant to evaporator conditions.
Evaporator


In the flooded shell-and-tube evaporator shown, the low-pressure mixture of liquid refrigerant and refrigerant vapor enters the distribution system that runs the entire length of the shell. Small openings and baffles in the passage of the liquid distributor provide an even spray of refrigerant over the surfaces of the tubes inside the evaporator shell, where the refrigerant absorbs heat from relatively warm water flowing through the tube bundle. This transfer of heat boils the liquid refrigerant on the tube surfaces. The resulting vapor passes through an eliminator that prevents liquid from being drawn upward. The vapor collects in a large chamber at the top of the shell and is drawn back to the compressor. The now-cool water can be used in a variety of comfort or process applications.
Some chiller designs may make use of a direct expansion (DX) shell-and- tube evaporator. In this type of evaporator, liquid refrigerant flows through the tubes and water fills the surrounding shell. As heat is transferred from the water to the refrigerant, the refrigerant boils inside the tubes and the resulting
vapor is drawn to the compressor.

Motor
Motor
A motor is used to rotate the impeller(s). A direct-drive motor is connected directly to the impeller shaft and the impeller rotates at the same speed as the motor. A gear-drive motor transfers its energy to the impeller shaft using a set of gears. This allows the impeller to rotate at a higher speed than the motor.
The direct-drive motor requires fewer bearings and does not incur gear losses. Additionally, since the compressor rotates at a lower speed, it can be much quieter.
Direct-drive compressors are, however, only practical in centrifugal chillers that use low-pressure refrigerants.
bobine Motor

Another important difference in compressor motors is the issue of hermetic versus open. A hermetic motor is totally enclosed within the chiller’s refrigeration system. An open motor is mounted externallyoutside of thechiller’s refrigeration system—and uses a coupling to connect the motor and compressor shafts.
The heat generated by the hermetic motor is absorbed by liquid refrigerant that flows around, through, and over the motor. The heat must be rejected by the chiller’s condenser.
The heat generated by the open motor is rejected to the air drawn in from the equipment room. This heat must still be rejected from the equipment room, either by mechanical ventilation or, if the room is conditioned, the building’s cooling system. In some designs, this air is simply drawn into the motor housing by the rotating motor shaft. The vent passages tend to get dirty and clog, resulting in higher operating temperatures and hot spots that adversely affect motor efficiency and reliability. Other designs, such as totally-enclosed fan-cooled (TEFC) and totally-enclosed air-over (TEAO), use a separate fan with a protective housing to cool the motor.

Controls and Starter
Controls and Starter
A microprocessor-based control panel is provided on the chiller to provide accurate chilled-water control as well as monitoring, protection, and adaptive limit functions. These controls monitor chiller operation and prevent the chiller from operating outside its limits. They can compensate for unusual operating conditions, keeping the chiller running by modulating system components rather than simply shutting it down when a safety setting is violated. When serious problems occur, diagnostic messages aid troubleshooting.
Modern control systems not only provide accurate, optimized control and protection for the chiller, but can also interface with a building automation system for integrated system control. In a chilled water system, optimal
 
starter
performance is a system-wide issue, not just a matter of chiller design and control.
A starter links the chiller motor and the electrical distribution system. Its primary function is to connect (start) and disconnect (stop) the chiller from line power—similar to what a switch does for a light bulb. The starter, however, handles much more current and must have the appropriate interlocks to work with the chiller control panel and oil pump.
starter
Every electrically driven chiller requires a starter. It must be compatible with the characteristics of both the compressor motor and the electrical circuitry of the chiller. There are many types of starters, including star-delta, across-the-line, auto-transformer, primary reactor, and solid state. A variable-speed drive, which is used to modulate the speed of the motor during normal operation, also serves as a starter. Important characteristics to consider when selecting a starter include first cost, reliability, line voltage, and available current.
The starter may be mounted on, or remotely from, the chiller. Use of a unit- mounted starter reduces electrical installation costs. It may also improve reliability and save system design time, since all of the components are pre- engineered and factory mounted.
Depending on the type of starter selected, there are several options that can simplify installation. Disconnects allow the starter to be isolated from the electrical distribution system, and short-circuit protection can be provided using fuses or a circuit breaker.
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                                            abo bahaa eddine


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